Just in time to help comply with the EURATOM Directive, Carestream has become a reseller of Bayer’s Radimetrics™ Enterprise Platform, which can collect data from most of the common radiology sources of radiation, incl. CT, X-Ray, Mammography, PET/CT and interventional. New EURATOM regulatory standards on radiation dose monitoring and reporting go into effect for the EU on February 6, 2018. Regulations are also being put in place in other regions throughout the world.
Carestream chose to work with Bayer for this effort because the focus on monitoring patient radiation dose is important due to the increased use of modalities such as CT for diagnosis, which impart has significantly higher dose than conventional X-Rays.
Much of the new concern about radiation exposure is on behalf of children, who are most likely to be at risk of radiation-induced cancer over their lifetimes. As seen in the chart below, the risk of fatal cancer increases dramatically as dose climbs above 0.02 millisieverts (mSv).
Comparison of Doses from Sources of Exposure
|Source of exposure||Dose|
|Dental x-ray||0.005 mSv|
|100g of Brazil nuts||0.01 mSv|
|Chest x-ray||0.014 mSv|
|Transatlantic flight||0.08 mSv|
|Nuclear power station worker average annual occupational exposure (2010)||0.18 mSv|
|UK annual average radon dose||1.3 mSv|
|CT scan of the head||1.4 mSv|
|UK average annual radiation dose||2.7 mSv|
|USA average annual radiation dose||6.2 mSv|
|CT scan of the chest||6.6 mSv|
|Average annual radon dose to people in Cornwall||7.8 mSv|
|CT scan of the whole spine||10 mSv|
|Annual exposure limit for nuclear industry employees||20 mSv|
|Level at which changes in blood cells can be readily observed||100 mSv|
|Acute radiation effects including nausea and a reduction in white blood cell count||1000 mSv|
Dose of radiation which would kill about half of those receiving it in a month
Without comparison data, hospitals can’t manage dose.
A recent study from the JAMA Intern Med showed a 5x variation in median dose (from 4 to 19 mSv) among hospitals for CT scans of 1,582 patients with suspected kidney stones, for which the optimum dose is 4 mSv. As radiology professionals, we expect small variations in equipment, but major differences resulting in unnecessary exposure are not acceptable. There are a number of initiatives already underway to address this issue. Hospitals are expanding their quality control of exam protocols and analyzing dose to reduce the amount of radiation exposure to patients in accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In addition, regulations such are EURATOM are being put in place.
|Diagnostic procedure||Typical effective doses (mSv)||Equivalent period of natural background radiation 1||Lifetime additional risk of fatal cancer per examination 2|
|Limbs and joints (except hip)||< 0.01||< 1.5 days||1 in a few million|
|Teeth (single bitewing)||< 0.01||< 1.5 days||1 in a few million|
|Teeth (panoramic)||0.01||1.5 days||1 in 2 million|
|Chest (single PA film)||0.02||3 days||1 in a million|
|Skull||0.07||11 days||1 in 300,000|
|Cervical spine (neck)||0.08||2 weeks||1 in 200,000|
|Hip||0.3||7 weeks||1 in 67,000|
|Thoracic spine||0.7||4 months||1 in 30,000|
|Pelvis||0.7||4 months||1 in 30,000|
|Abdomen||0.7||4 months||1 in 30,000|
|Lumbar spine||1.3||7 months||1 in 15,000|
|Barium swallow||1.5||8 months||1 in 13,000|
|IVU (kidneys and bladder)||2.5||14 months||1 in 8000|
|Barium meal||3||16 months||1 in 6700|
|Barium follow||3||16 months||1 in 6700|
|Barium enema||7||3.2 years||1 in 3000|
|CT head||2||1 year||1 in 10,000|
|CT chest||8||3.6 years||1 in 2500|
|CT abdomen/pelvis||10||4.5 years||1 in 2000|
How Radimetrics helps with dose management
Radimetrics connects to your existing PACS information and automatically calculates patient doses. It further helps with compliance automation by facilitating protocol management, email dose alerts, interactive dosimetry training and providing EU dose reporting templates for submission to authorities. Radimetrics can help provide the data institutions need to improve their practices allowing them to generate diagnostic quality images more safely, consistently and efficiently, in line with radiation standards and regulation. For example:
- The medical physicist benefits from near real-time tracking, monitoring and reporting and automation of routine administrative tasks.
- The radiologist benefits from tools that can help identify variation from protocols and scanner operation.
- The technologist gains confidence from tools that help the department define an imaging procedure that better meets patient needs. Date-range dose alerts can warn if thresholds are exceeded. Benchmarking helps select dose effective scanners.
- The administrator gains valuable multi-modality utilization data. This helps informs new scanner investments with real-world performance data
If you would like to learn more about Radimetrics for your enterprise, let us know!
(Appliesto: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands,Norway, Spain,Sweden,Switzerland, UK, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Austria, Australia, Hong Kong, Philippines, Singapore, Canada, USA)